It was they who promoted the myth of the allegedly unprecedented cynicism of Jesuit ethics in European culture. It seems that the political doctrine of the Monarchomachs was the only source of discord for Polish Jesuits. In spite of the views that dominated within the the Society of Jesus, Polish national interests made Krzysztof Warszewicki and Piotr Skarga ardent advocates of absolutism.
Kareev expressed in his seminal work on the Counter-Reformation in Poland. That is why, almost immediately after the Union of Lublin proclaiming the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania to be a single state, preparations began for the religious union aimed at the return of Orthodox believers to the bosom of the Roman Catholic Church.
These preparations were accompanied by the emergence of a wide variety of polemical works. For Skarga, this consequence was the cultural backwardness of the Slavonic peoples. There is neither Slavic grammar nor rhetoric, and they are just unimaginable. Slavonic language is the cause why people of orthodox faith have only elementary schools for studying grammar. Skarga also argued to his readers that the Greeks intentionally brought Christianity to the Slavonic world in the local language, not Greek or Latin, as they wanted to keep Slavonic peoples ignorant and so maintain their own spiritual power.
It was absolutely natural for these people to consider the creation of Orthodox education as their main goal. It is well known that graduates of this Academy were the principal figures in almost all the enlightenment movements in Russia from the second half of the 17 th century to the late 18 th century.
The academic curriculum which had been shaped at the turn of the 17 th century in the first Russian Orthodox collegiums and academies on the territory of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was an almost exact copy of the academic curriculum adopted in Jesuit schools. This statement can be brought into correlation with the problem of the Ukrainian Baroque.
It was in the middle of the 20 th century when the philosophy historian Dmytro Chyzhevsky noted that for Ukraine Baroque is not just an artistic style or even a historical period, but the basis for an entire cultural entity. Historians name such characteristic features of the Ukrainian mentality as a love for contradictions, individualism, emotionality, the tendency to see the world as a theatre etc.
However, it soon became obvious that there was no unanimity among Ukrainian scholars either, and by the s they were divided into groups of Graecophiles and Latinophiles. The School of the Saviour founded by Simeon of Polotsk where Latin was the first teaching language became a stronghold for Latinophiles, while a stronghold of Greacophiles was the St. Both monks were graduates of the Kiev Mohyla Academy. According to the historian G.
Zoroastrian Scholasticism in Late Antiquity
Mirkovich, the difference between them appeared because Epiphanius studied at the newly created collegium following the traditions of the old Kievan Theophany School, where Greek language and literature prevailed. Simeon studied in this collegium later, when Latin had become the sole teaching language there with all the lectures and books in Latin Markovich It is clear that these liturgical differences are connected with the main dogmatic difference between Orthodoxy and Catholicism: the question of the descent of the Holy Spirit. According to Catholic dogma, the Holy Spirit descends not only from the Father, but also from the Son filioque , so the transubstantiation is initiated by the words of Christ Himself verba consecrationis ; according to Orthodoxy, the Holy Spirit descends only from the Father, and some address to the Holy Spirit is necessary for the transubstantiation of bread and wine to take place.
This point of view was expressed in liturgical service books: for example, in the service book of the brotherhood of Vilensk or in the ordinals from the Kiev Pechersk Lavra , Many Latinophiles were of the same view. But when it came to filioque , both West Russian and Moscow theologians held the Orthodox dogmatic position and refuted the Catholic dogma. So how was it possible to justify the liturgical changes? To answer this question we should once again refer to the philosophy of Second scholasticism.
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These grounds were tightly connected with the principle of individuality and the specifics of existence, the unity of essence and existence and the freedom of will. Individual and specific existence can be comprehended by the only definition reflecting the most essential issues. With regard to liturgy, it meant that every ritual should be a logical consequence of only one thought, one statement.
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Every ordinance should have only one substance its own and only one form its own. If the priest does not have the intention to administer the sacrament, there will be no transubstantiation. The philosophy of Second scholasticism was apprehended by Latinophiles, you might say, across confessional boundaries: in their theological thought they were Orthodox.
I would conjecture that the reasons for this were not so much religious as political it is relevant that in the end Sylvester Medvedev was condemned not for his religious beliefs, but for his political ties to Fyodor Shaklovity and for joining a conspiracy against Petr Alexeyevich.
The ideology of Second scholasticism directly contradicts the goals of the creation of the Russian Empire and the consolidation of autocracy. But to disregard the political corollaries of Second scholasticism inevitably means to deny its logic. As a result, from the time of Theophan Prokopovich forward, Russian theology of the 18 th century and consequently the whole Russian education system was reoriented towards Protestantism and Leibniz-style enlightened Rationalism. This combination of Catholicism and Logic is no accident, and can be traced back to the late 16 th — early 17 th century.
From this point of view, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which by the end of the 17 th century was almost the only European refuge for Catholic scholasticism, retained along with scholasticism the logical culture of the European Middle Ages, which became topical again only in 20 th century philosophy.
Numeri con testo integrale
And in the 19 th and 20 th centuries the negative attitude to formal logic almost became typical feature of Russian philosophy. Kopnin, Myroslav V. Popovych etc. In other words, while Cartesian philosophy comprehended the world from the position of necessity , Second scholasticism did it from the position of possibility.
Introduction 2. The Zand 3.
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