Product Details. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. Bakunin contro Marx. Marx contro Bakunin. Alle origini.
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A esclusione di Carlo Cafiero, del quale riconobbe il valore, Marx fu crudele con gli A esclusione di Carlo Cafiero, del quale riconobbe il valore, Marx fu crudele con gli anarchici, una componente significativa del movimento operaio portatrice di istanze importanti per lo sviluppo del movimento.
Gli anarchici lo ripagarono con la stessa moneta. View Product. Briefe von Ferdinand Lassalle an Karl Marx und. Diese spiegeln sowohl die teils heftigen politischen Kontroversen zwischen Lassalle und den beiden Verfassern des Kommunistischen Manifests und die Unterschiede in ihren Theorien wider, But Knepler, as we saw, was quite critical of the attempt to deal with music in purely historical terms. Moreover, as an advocate of a historical-materialist conception of progress, he objected to the relativist ideas and philosophies associated with postmodernism.
The latter were fundamental to the development of more recent models of critical musicology.
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As Anne C. Shreffler noted, New Musicology was informed by the critical theories coming from France rather than Germany. As several scholars have noted, classical music was appropriated in the GDR as an element of the German humanist heritage.
Knepler not only endorsed this line of thought but in fact enhanced it. A good example of this is his high opinion of Gustav Mahler for his apparent sympathy for the proletariat or, alternatively, his positive appraisal of the early revolutionary Richard Wagner. In his studies of music history and aesthetics, Knepler both followed and modified this thread. His ideas, which resonated with the language of Soviet cultural functionaries, were almost indispensable for anyone in East Germany writing on the arts and aesthetics, including Knepler.
1 Was ist Kultur- und Sozialanthropologie?
Translated into the practice of musical composition, this meant two things: first, broad accessibility and, second, the writing of program and vocal music with socialist revolutionary content. This goal was important to Knepler not only as a music scholar but also as an exponent of Marxism as a universal science.
At the same time, he was equally critical of the neo-Marxist and post-structuralist models that later exerted their influence on New Musicology. His ideas are best understood in view of nineteenth-century historical materialism and some of the threads of cybernetics and modernized Marxism of the GDR. For Knepler, Marxism meant, in the first place, a scientific worldview that involved recognizing the evolutionary and anthropological foundations that made music an effective system of aesthetic communication.
On this basis, he hoped to attain a holistic viewpoint on the overall development of music that would match his definition of art as a composite of biological, aesthetic and historical factors. This by no means renders his basic approach obsolete. As a matter of fact, the time has never been more appropriate for reconsideration of his work, and not only because of the growing interest in the music history of the GDR. His concern with anthropology and anthropogenesis resonates with some recent projects and new fields of inquiry within cultural musicology.
The essay is part of a larger research project dealing with music and aesthetic culture in the German Democratic Republic. I am grateful to the Royal Society and the British Academy for their generous support of the project in years in my capacity as a Newton International Fellow at the University of Cambridge. I would like to thank Nicholas Cook for his support and mentoring of the project.
I also would like to express my gratitude to John Knepler for reading and commenting on the essay and for providing me with photos of his father. The essay is dedicated to the memory of Christian Kaden who first introduced me to the work and ideas of Georg Knepler. All translations in this essay are mine unless otherwise indicated. Version: 1. Abstract The Viennese-born musicologist Georg Knepler was one of the most important music scholars of the twentieth-century.
According to Plekhanov, The sense of beauty is inherent to human beings as much as to many animals. But [the question] of which things and phenomena create this pleasure depends on the conditions under which they [i. The human nature is such that it can possess aesthetic feelings and concepts.
The surrounding conditions bring in its wake the transition from this possibility to reality; this explains why a certain social human being i. In this context, he opposes the uncritical appropriation of biological concepts typical of positivist musicology for dissociating music from its real social and natural sources: Music is indeed not a product of nature but a social [product]. However, one of its roots reaches back to the natural history of man and it [also] possesses biological components.
The evolutionary history of music has not been written yet, but the evolutionary theories of the last century contributed some partial results to it. Sie hat eine Entwicklungsgeschichte, die zwar sicher bisher noch nicht geschrieben wurde, zu der aber die Evolutionstheorien des vorigen Jahrhunderts Teilergebnisse beizusteuern haben. Cybernetics and interdisciplinarity During the twentieth century, the scientific aspect of Marxism known as dialectical materialism was considered controversial even among intellectuals active in the Soviet Bloc, but several prominent East German scholars have contributed to its resurrection in a new and modern guise.
In Kybernetik in philosophischer Sicht Cybernetics in a Philosophical View, , he explains the significance of the new science of regulation: The new science of cybernetics, with all its social, scientific and philosophical consequences is, alongside the scientific and technical mastery of nuclear energy and the beginning of space travel, the most important scientific event of today.
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Cybernetics has a profound influence on our physical and spiritual being. As for its revolutionary impact, it can be compared with the discoveries of Copernicus, Darwin and Marx. Die Kybernetik greift tief in unser materielles und geistiges Sein ein. The former are friendly and beckoning e. Not only animals are startled by acoustical events that reach a loud volume after a rapid increase in amplitude. Conversely: sounds which are soft, sustained, and rich in overtones are also attractive to humans.
For the first and only time the voice reach a high G with a concomitant increase in intensity. With this high G Zerlina leads us triumphantly—and, of course, again by way of the resolution of the dominant—into the ritornello, this time forte , again for the first and only time in the piece. Music and labour The concept of labour was bound to have special meaning for materialist thinkers such as Knepler. In the animal ACS [acoustic communication system] and in the early stages of the ECCS [emotive-cognitive communication system] no vocabulary and no system of codification for [the communication of] these actions and objects existed.
The continuous expansion of the human field of action and the resulting complication of social relations also made psychic adaptation to new circumstances necessary. In the same way, and for the same reason, the senses of social man are different from those of non-social man.
- Einführung und Propädeutikum Kultur- und Sozialanthropologie?
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Only through the objectively unfolded wealth of human nature can the wealth of subjective human sensitivity—a musical ear, an eye for the beauty of form, in short, senses capable of human gratification—be either cultivated or created. For not only the five senses, but also the so-called spiritual senses, the practical senses will, love, etc. These scholars are doing a disservice to the elaboration of music theory. In this act of creativity, the artist continuously takes sides in social struggles and very often he does so very passionately.
Conclusion  Knepler put forward a unique vision of a historical-materialist music aesthetics and historiography. Acknowledgements The essay is part of a larger research project dealing with music and aesthetic culture in the German Democratic Republic. Gesellschaftliche Entwicklung und Kulturpoliktik Stuttgart: Metzler, , As the name implies, Marxism-Leninist is indebted also to the ideas of Lenin.
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In practice, state and party officials as well as cultural functionaries invoked Marxism-Leninism in support of various ideological and political aims. Musikalische und musikwissenschaftliche Gesellschaften in der DDR.
Munich: Richard Boorberg, , Musikwissenschaftler und marxistischer Denker aus Wien Vienna: Studienverlag, Jahrhunderts Berlin: Henschel, We know that he fell out of favour with the East German regime during the last decades of the GDR but the reason for this may have little to do with the content of his musicological studies. Similarly, Erich Fromm maintained that according to Marx, there was no contradiction between ontology and history; the essential nature of man realizes itself, each time in different guises, in tandem with local historical and social conditions. Rodney Livingstone London: Verso, , Jahrhunderts , 7.
Metzler, , and Joachim Fischer, Philosophische Anthropologie. Eine Denkrichtung des V Dickinson, J. By A District Officer. Thornton, E. Trotter, L. Wheeler, J.
Hasskarl, Leipzig Money, J. Showing a practical solution of the questions now affecting British India, 2 Vols. Raffles, Th. Semper, C. Berichte aus den Jahren , Bremen Cardonne, D. Le Baron de Slane, 4t. Alger Leynadier, C.